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模具的發展對機床提出了哪些要求

來源:    發布時間:2019-04-04 11:04:05    點擊:

  隨著消費類產品更新換代速度的加快,模具技術也在不斷的發展,對模具的生產效率和制造品質提出了越來越高的要求,因此電火花加工模具的低生產效率和品質不穩定等缺點逐漸暴露出來。
  With the acceleration of renewal and replacement of consumer products, die technology is also constantly developing, which puts forward higher and higher requirements for the production efficiency and manufacturing quality of dies. Therefore, the shortcomings of low production efficiency and unstable quality of EDM dies are gradually exposed.
  為實現模具型腔及其相關部位的高速加工,機床需要具備以下特點:
  In order to realize high-speed machining of die cavity and its related parts, machine tools need to have the following characteristics:
  1.由于模具正在向大型化方向發展,幾噸到幾十噸的模具非常普遍,因此要求機床工作臺面能承受大重量,這就要求設備必須具有大承重和高剛性的特性,還 必須有足夠大的臺面尺寸和工作行程與之相適應。另外,模具材料的強度和硬度都很高,加上常常采用伸長量較大的小直徑端銑刀加工模具型腔,因此加工過程容易 發生顫振。為了確保零件的加工精度和表面質量,用于模具制造的高速機床必須有很高的動、靜剛度,以提高機床的定位精度、跟蹤精度和抗振能力。
  1. As the die is developing towards large-scale, several to dozens of tons of dies are very common, so it is required that the machine tool working table can bear large weight, which requires that the equipment must have the characteristics of large load-bearing and high rigidity, and must have a large enough table size and work stroke to adapt to it. In addition, the strength and hardness of die materials are very high, and small diameter end milling cutters with large elongation are often used to process die cavity, so the processing process is prone to flutter. In order to ensure the processing accuracy and surface quality of parts, high-speed machine tools used in die manufacturing must have high dynamic and static stiffness to improve the positioning accuracy, tracking accuracy and anti-vibration ability of machine tools.
  2.高轉速和大功率高速加工是發展方向,高速銑削在模具加工中已顯示了極大地優越性。為了適應模具型腔曲面的加工,刀具的半徑應小于型腔曲面比較小圓周 半徑,以免加工過程中刀具與工件發生“干涉”。由于刀具直徑小,因此要求主軸轉速非常高,國外高速加工機床主軸轉速已達到4萬~10萬r/min,快速進 給速度可達3萬~6萬min。型腔和模具零件其他部件粗、精加工常常在工件一次裝夾中完成,故主軸功率要大,中等尺寸模具銑床和加工中心的主軸功率常為 10~40kW,有的甚至更高。
  2. High-speed and high-power high-speed machining is the direction of development. High-speed milling has shown great advantages in die processing. In order to adapt to the processing of die cavity surface, the radius of the tool should be less than the minimum circumference radius of the cavity surface, so as to avoid interference between the tool and the workpiece in the process of machining. Because of the small tool diameter, the spindle speed is required to be very high. The spindle speed of foreign high-speed machine tools has reached 40,000-100,000 r/min, and the fast feed speed can reach 30,000-60,000 min. Rough and finish machining of cavity and other parts of die parts is often completed in one clamp, so the spindle power is larger. The spindle power of medium size die milling machine and processing center is usually 10 ~ 40 kW, some even higher.
  3.能多軸聯動及良好的深孔腔綜合切削能力模具型腔多為復雜的空間六曲面及溝槽所構成,且許多模具具有深孔腔。為了達到對3D曲面的高精度、高速度和 高穩定性加工,機床需要多軸聯動,且具有良好的深孔腔綜合切削能力。可以采用五軸聯動加工中心,除了三個坐標的直線運動外,還有兩個旋轉坐標的進給運動。 銑頭或工作臺可以多軸聯動進行連續回轉進給,從而適用于加工具有復雜型腔曲面的模具零件。
  3. The die cavity with multi-axis linkage and good comprehensive cutting ability of deep-hole cavity is mostly composed of complex space hexagonal surface and groove, and many of the dies have deep-hole cavity. In order to achieve high accuracy, high speed and high stability of 3D surface processing, the machine tool needs multi-axis linkage, and has good comprehensive cutting ability of deep hole cavity. Five-axis linkage machining center can be used. In addition to the linear motion of three coordinates, there are two rotating coordinates of the feed motion. The milling head or worktable can be continuously rotated by multi-axis linkage, so it is suitable for processing die parts with complex cavity surface.
                    山東模具
  可以說,復合加工是模具加工的發展方向之一。雖然加工中心已能將許多機加工工序復合在一臺機床上實現,但這仍不能完全適應模具加工,將機械加工與電、化學、超聲波等不同原理加工方法進行復合,兼備兩種以上工藝特點的復合加工在今后的模具制造中將有廣闊的前景。
  It can be said that compound processing is one of the development directions of die processing. Although the machining center has been able to integrate many machining processes into one machine tool, it still can not fully adapt to die processing. It will have broad prospects in future die manufacturing by combining mechanical processing with different principles such as electrochemical, ultrasonic and other processing methods.
 
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